Choosing The Right Materials For Printed Circuit Board With High Frequency

There are two factors that you need to take into account when choosing the right materials for printed circuit board with high frequency. The first one is how well the materials meet the needs of an end-use application. The second one is how much effort is needed to fabricate the desired circuit. These two things should work together.

Actually, there are no proven guidelines or step-by-step procedures in choosing the right materials. However, you can simply decide by evaluating the materials in terms of their relevance to meeting the needs of an end-use application and to circuit fabrication.

Taking into consideration the end-use applications

There are some factors involved in choosing materials based on the end-use applications. These factors are thermal conductivity, dielectric constant (Dk), moisture absorption and conductor losses.

printed circuit boardThe first one is thermal conductivity which refers to the capability to conduct heat. In high-power applications this parameter is very important to take into account because high temperature should be dissipated. The substrate for high-power applications should have high thermal conductivity to be effective. Basically, most printed circuit board materials have 0.25 W/m/K thermal conductivity. The best way to improve the thermal conductivity of a circuit material is by adding a ceramic filler. Moreover, incorporating a material with ceramic filler can help solve some issues on thermal management.

Next, dialectric constant (Dk) is the value needed to determine as a process control for making the substrate. One of the most common methods today to get the Dk value is through software simulation tools. However, it yields erroneous results. When the process Dk values are not suitable for printed circuit board design, technicians determine a second set of Dk values via micro strip transmission lines circuits.

Another important factor to consider is the moisture absorption. For example, a very humid environment will cause increases in Dk which can negatively affect the PCB performance. In this type of environment, it is ideal to use circuit materials with high moisture absorption to avoid degraded performances. Most printed circuit board materials have 1% moisture absorption.

In addition, conductor losses should also be taken into account, especially for thin circuits. Some of the factors that affect conductor losses are roughness of the copper, circuit configuration, circuit design and thickness of conductive metals. Materials with high amount of copper surface roughness have higher conductor losses compared to materials that have smoother ones.

Considering the fabrication issues

There are different mechanical processes involved in the high frequency PCB fabrication. These include multilayer lamination, assembly, plated-through-hole (PTH) preparation and drilling.

The main concern with multilayer lamination is the fact that dissimilar materials are bonded together. These dissimilar materials can complicate the PTH preparation and drilling processes. Moreover, a mismatch between material properties can cause reliability problems. Generally, materials with low lamination temperatures are used to avoid these problems.

When it comes to PCB assembly the main issue is the effects of thermal stress in the soldering process. Circuit materials with a lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) are preferred because these materials can handle the thermal stress better. This is why different circuit materials are used in multilayer PCB construction. The combinations of materials, with lower CTE and good electrical properties, makes it possible to assemble and design a robust printed circuit board.

PTH preparation process requires special processing. The use of ceramic-filled PTFE-based materials gives more options. In contrast, the use of non-ceramic-filled PTFE materials needs a specific process and provides limited choices.

Lastly, there are different issues during the drilling process. Some of these are fracturing of materials and smearing. The process of fracturing is not appropriate for non woven glass hydrocarbon materials. Smearing can be fatal for PTFE-based materials.

The creation of the printed circuit board solved the incoming issue of complex wiring in electronic components when it first started.Visit this site for more idea.

How to Choose the Best Golf shoes

It cannot be denied that golf is an expensive sport which is the reason why you have to gear up from head to toe. Aside from the golf club membership, you also have to invest on a good gear which is composed of a good golf club, golf balls, golf outfit, gloves, and a good pair of golf shoes. Shoes are very important in golf because you don’t want your feet to hurt and at the same time, you don’t want any hindrance as to your shot. As many golfers would say, good equipment is not enough if you don’t pair it up with good shoes for golfing.

Here is a brief guide to help you choose the best shoes for your golfing activities.


Golf shoeIn looking for the best golf shoes, there are only five things you need to remember. The first one is style. As the saying goes, a lot can be told about a person based on his shoes and the same goes with shoes for golf. Golf shoes must not only match your golfing performance but also your personality. There are different companies which offer shoes that can suit your golfing needs. If you are into a sporty look, Puma, Adidas, ECCO, Ashworth, and Nike offer good shoes that look like sneakers but with technology for golf such as the Adidas Adicross. If you are into a classy look, Footjoy and Callaway can be a good choice because they offer a wide variety of footwear for golf.


The second thing you need to consider is the quality of the shoes. This is important because even if it suits your style but does not meet your demand in terms of the sport, it is not a good shoe. Quality in this sense depends on how frequent you engage in golfing activity. Consider the number of times you play the sport. If you play golf casually, you need a durable pair. But if you play golf weekly or more than once a week, you need a very durable pair such as leather. Furthermore, a casual golfer needs at least one pair but if you play often, it is best to own several pairs of shoes that suit your style—for the shoes to have a reliever.


Price does not always mean quality. Although some of the best shoes are really expensive, the cost of shoes does not necessarily mean quality and performance. As a buyer, you must check what the shoes offer and if the price is justified. Check the prices offered by different manufacturers and compare what each product offers for a specific price so you can get more out of your money. If money is not an issue, then check the quality of the shoes being sold by stores either actual or online.


The fourth thing you need to remember in buying golf shoes is the size. A shoe with good quality and style at a good price is useless if it does not fit you. As golf shoes are specially made for the sport, its size varies from the normal shoe. Hence, it is better to buy at actual stores. If you prefer online stores though, you must take the measurement for each foot separately. It is advisable to purchase a golf shoe which is half-inch larger than your actual size to make room for toe movement and for support.


The last thing you need to look for a shoe to be the best shoe for you is the comfort it provides. Comfort of course cannot be contained in a single definition because what is comfortable to you may not be comfortable for others. Hence, your own comfort should be considered when buying golf shoes. Try different pairs: closed-toe, sandals, waterproof design, sneakers-type, and classic leather type. Only when you get to try different pairs will you realize what the most comfortable one is.

Author Bio:
We offer great discount on Golf shoes and sandals for men and women, also We offer kid golf shoes, golf sandals for a man or lady by Nike, Adidas and Footjoy.

Million Dollar Homes for Sale in Long Island, New York

Beaches, golf courses, equestrian trails, spas, and a whole bunch of lifestyle-related activities lure affluent homeowners to check out million dollar homes for sale in Long Island, New York. Here are the currently listed million dollar properties located in Long Island.

Price: $23,500,000

MLS No. 12942

Located in Wainscot, this beachfront contemporary rests in a 2.2 acre lot with an open kitchen and an ocean view deck perfect for summertime parties. Its magnificent pool, pool house, and spa complete a relaxing weekend retreat. This residential estate features five bedrooms, four bathrooms, a powder room, a living and dining room. A selection of manicured golf courses, fancy restaurants, and respectable schools may be found nearby. Truly this is a great investment deal.

Price: $19,900,000

Property ID No. 2541675

Real EstateDying to see luxury homes for sale in Long Island, New York? Consider this property as a priceless investment. This palatial estate is located in Eastport. It lies within a 1.65-acre lot with lush forest, pastures, and hiking trails. This colonial residence features nine bedrooms, seven bathrooms, a powder room, finished basements, and a nine-car garage perfect for hosting a weekend live-in party. The vast Eat-In Kitchen and the two-stove outdoor kitchen complements the party-ready spaces inside and outside this magnificent property. The rear patio and deck highlights the relaxing ambiance of a twenty-by-forty feet pool area. For more strenuous outdoor exercises, an equestrian trail is available for horse lovers and a first-class tennis court for enthusiasts is another option. This property is too valuable to pass up.

Price: $17,500,000

Property ID No. 2594607

This 4.7 acre waterfront property is located at Westhampton Beach, the summer town on the east end of Long Island. Built in 1994, this Mediterranean home features seven bedrooms, seven bathrooms, and a powder room. Its wide living room and spacious family room and vast den are ideal for luxury parties. Its large outdoor pool facing the calm ocean view can perfectly relieve all sorts of stress. Its wide scenic backyard can hold hundreds of guests on occasions like weddings, birthdays, and tea parties. The Hamptons are known for the gorgeous beaches. A property such as this is an ideal addition to your portfolio.

Price: $16,980,000

MLS No. 2585504

Get this classic colonial residence built in a 1.65-acre lot which has a spectacular view of Long Island Sound, Westchester, and Connecticut. This upscale property is located in Great Neck with valuable features such as great room with high ceilings, living room with fireplace, and formal dining room ideal for entertaining a number of guests. It has a tailored master suite with classic marble master bath. In addition, it has five stunning bedrooms with full bathrooms. Its interiors are among the finest such as mahogany-framed windows, detailed French doors, and artistically designed ceilings. It has a stone patio with built-in barbeque spot. Its backyard is a wide space over looking Manhasset Bay. This property has a long list of magnificent features. Interested in finding valuable homes for sale in Long Island, New York? The “Great Gatsby” classic property is indeed worth the price.

Price: $ 15,500,000

Property ID No. 2557813

Built in 1931, this massive estate went through a huge renovation in 2007. Located in Mill Neck on a 10-acre property, this classic mansion features seven bedrooms, nine full bathrooms, three powder rooms, a family room, a formal dining room, an eat-in kitchen, a basement, and an attic. It has a five-car garage, private driveway, terraces, stone patio, and large pool. Its state-of-the-art interiors are breathtaking. Formal parties may be held in its extensive spaces. An informal gathering may also be held in its game house where billiards and other game facilities are conveniently located. A dazzling waterfront is truly a bonus feature of this property.

You can get idea about million dollar homes for sale in long island by visiting

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How to Order Customized Military Coins

Challenge coins or more popularly known as military coins have been present for decades. First used during World War 1 to recognize the service and membership of soldiers and military personnel, it is now used by other organizations and even business companies to bear the emblem and insignia of the organization.

military coinsMilitary coins are used as medallions or awards. It is used to acknowledge the achievements and accomplishments of a member of a certain organization. Some military coins bear the symbol of the Navy Cross or Medal of Honor.

Military coins can be customized. It can be made from different materials such as metal, copper, brass, nickel, silver or gold. Some challenge coins are also designed to have an antique or polished finished. Some have diamond edges, engravings, 3D designs and cut outs. It all depends on what the customer wants for the challenge coins.

When ordering customized challenge coins, the first step is coming up with the design. The customer can decide the color and finish of the coin. Will it have an engraved emblem or an embossed symbol? Challenge coins also come in different shapes such as round coins, square coins, star shaped, dog tags or polygon shape.

After that, other details such as the size and type of metal to be used are included in the design plan. Even minor details such as cut out shapes and colors of the engravings are also considered.

In some cases, the customers make the design sketch themselves. Some customers on the other hand, prefer to have the design made by the graphic artist where they will order the challenge coins. But no matter the case, once the design sketch is finished, it is transferred to the coin makers to prepare for the molding and stamping.

The design is transformed into a stamp or engraver. This will be used to transfer the design to the coin. Afterwards, the coin is created by melting the metal material and pouring it to the molds of the required size and shape.

While the coin is still soft and cooling, the design is stamped or engraved into place. Other details such as the color are added by painting the coin manually. Then, it is cleaned and polished. The challenge coins are sent over to quality control to double check if there are any damages or problems in the coins. If none is found, the challenge coins are packed and delivered to the customer.

However, even if the customized challenge coins are made with great care and high quality materials, proper care and maintenance is needed to preserve the coins’ quality.When wearing or using the challenge coins, make sure to avoid contact with water. Water and other liquids could damage the coins by making it prone to discoloration and rusting; this is especially the case in metal challenge coins.

Cleaning the challenge coins depend on the type of material used to make it. Challenge coins made from gold, silver, brass, nickel, copper and metal are cleaned using different materials and methods.

For instance, brass coins can only be cleaned using jewelry polishing cloth or polishing cream. Silver and gold coins can be cleaned using silver or gold polishers. But for all types of challenge coins, it is important to use a soft polishing cloth to remove the dirt. Be gentle in rubbing and cleaning the coins. Avoid using brushes when cleaning the coins to avoid scratching the coin’s surface.

Customized challenge coins are very affordable and durable. As long as it is properly taken care of, people from different age groups can enjoy it for generations and years to come.

Choosing a lanyard to buy

When deciding to purchase lanyards, you need to keep in mind that there are many options available. Most people and companies use them for identification purposes, while others simply use them to hold their belongings such as mobile phones, keys, glasses, and many others. Its usage, in fact, dates back to the 15th century wherein the French military first used them for securing their weapons and tools.

lanyardsIn any case, it is really a matter of finding creative means to use them based on your personal or organizational preference. To help you decide, this guide will introduce you to all the basics you need to know.

What are you going to using it for?

Before anything else, you need to ask yourself what you’ll use it for. Is it for an international conference that you are organizing, which involves hundreds of people? With this handful of people, you definitely need to sort out your staff, volunteers, and the participants. Is it for personal use, such as for securing your things? Regardless of your plans on how to use these cords, remember that different types can be used in specific events or situations.

For instance, if you want to produce several ones for an international conference, it is best to order the thick ones because these allow more space for the text and logos. This way, they are more visible to the participants of the event, and are also stylish and eye-catching.

Once you’ve decided what you’re going to use them for, it’s now time to check out the different types and what materials they are made of. Depending on your personal preference, you may choose whichever style best suits you, produce only the highest quality, professional-looking customized lanyards for companies, trade shows and organizations around the world.

Different types

Various materials are used to produce these products. To enumerate, here are the common ones produced and the advantages they could provide:


They are affordable, and considered to be the most popular type produced together with cotton. Polyester offers a crisper and cleaner imprint on the fabric. When you have a logo with an intricate design, it is best to use polyester.


As affordable and popular as polyester, cotton is also durable and soft. It is important to understand the differences between polyester and cotton first to choose the best option.

Flat polyester

This material is produced from plastic that has been broken down into a soft, durable and comfortable material. According to the Lanyards USA Knowledge Base, 95% of all lanyards are usually made of polyester.

Recycled (PET)

Made of recycled plastics, these materials are ideal for those who are environmentally conscious. Even though they are made of recycled materials, they are comfortable to wear and soft when touched.


For those who want a rugged and tough look, it’d be best to consider nylon. The fabric is thick and good for printing detailed text and logos. Medical companies usually prefer nylon because it does not cause static electricity. Nylon can also be disinfected by washing it with alcohol.


Ideally for companies that want to establish a“big brand” image, duoflex stands out because of its stunning design. These are also commonly used for promotional items given in big company events. The colors and designs of duoflex can also be customized.

Reflective materials

When it comes to night time gatherings, reflective materials are very useful because they glow in the dark. They are ideal if you need help with safety or low visibility. The fabric can be woven with reflective stripes, or the whole lanyards can be coated with reflective materials.

There are various styles to choose from, and it is up to you to decide which lanyards best suit your needs. The aforementioned are only the most common ones produced.

Tips for the Businessman Seeking Dubai Hotel Apartments

Among the newer cities of the world, Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is probably the fastest-growing in terms of the business environment being so dynamic. There is something new to see every day and new opportunities to grab on to if you’re a business person looking for your most promising deals. The number of visitors to the city also is growing immensely – mostly business people who stay for a few days to finish deals, and those who chose to make this city their primary area of operations.

Because of this, looking for the right place to stay can be troublesome. But not if you plan ahead and if you have actually started getting in touch with contacts who are there to help when you need it.

hotel apartmentsIf you are a frequent visitor, the best thing to do is look for Dubai hotel apartments that will not only provide you the comfort you are looking for, but also keep you close to the locations where you need to be to conduct your business. These types of accommodations are less expensive than the bigger established hotels in the city. Just right for the budget-conscious businessman.

Before you decide whether to find Dubai hotel apartments or just call your usual hotel and have them reserve you a room, take note that the length of your stay matters a lot in your decision. If you plan to stay just for a day for that important initial meet-up with your client, it might be better to book a hotel room in a location that’s convenient for you and your client. But if it’s going to be a longer trip, plan ahead and go for Dubai hotel apartments.

Hotel apartments are called that precisely because they offer the advantages of a regular hotel, plus the added convenience of freedom of choice, space, and the comforts closely resembling home. You’ll find that they’re usually larger than the usual hotel room size, and in most cases, there’s a kitchen in there if you want to cook your meals or microwave something from the convenience store. If you have time to do that in spite of your busy schedule.

hotel room

Dubai hotel apartments are not hard to come by, as long as it’s not the peak travel season. Summer is the best time to visit, so try scheduling your business trips around that time – that’s about May to August or September. You’ll find prices about 50% off the peak season price when you go there about that time. But if you really have to come during the winter months, like November to April, it would be advisable to book early.

The good thing about accommodations in Dubai is that there are plenty of choices. You can do an online search, just type Dubai hotel apartments, and it would come back and give a long list of places precisely with that description. The only thing you need to do is compare the amenities and prices, and that sometimes depend on a lot of other things like the location or how old has the place been existing. Newer places tend to be more expensive, especially if they happen to be close to Dubai Marina – that part of the city that’s still in development but is expected to rise soon as among the most expensive places in the Middle East.

Hotel apartments do have 24 hours front desk service, so don’t worry about having to get back late at night and not having anyone available to do room service for you. Also, most of these places are staffed by English-speaking employees, so language would not be a problem at all.